In order to ensure optimal treatment outcomes, a careful diagnosis is essential. Physicians should consider the patient’s history, perform a physical examination and collect information on voiding frequency and urinary volumes by using frequency-volume charts. In the majority of patients, nocturia is not a single element, but has to be considered within the context of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Prof. Kerrebroeck presents an algorithm for the evaluation and treatment of nocturia, according to whether the patient has daytime or nighttime symptoms or both. In conclusion, Prof. Kerrebroeck states that nocturia is a highly prevalent and bothersome condition, often caused by nocturnal polyuria, and that desmopressin therapy can be considered in patients with nocturia.